Centre for the Study of Hispanic Exile

José Bergamín [1895–1983]

Date of Birth: 1 Jan 1895 Madrid
Died: 28 Aug 1983 Fuenterrabia/Guipuzcoa (age 88)

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- Madrid
Studied Law at Madrid University.
- Caracas
Exile
- Montevideo
Exile
1921 Madrid
Publishes his first works in Indice, the journal directed by Juan Ramón Jiménez
1921 Madrid
Starts working in his father's legal office, where Manuel Altolaguirre becomes his friend.
Jul 1928 Madrid
Marries Rosario Arniches, daughter of the playwright Carlos Arniches.
Sep 1928 Madrid. Calle Velazquez 102
Settles in Madrid. Starts campaigns in support of the Republic
1933 Madrid
Founds the journal Cruz y Raya.
1 Dec 1935 Madrid
Final issue of Cruz y Raya
30 Jun 1936 Madrid
Appointed president of the Antifascist Intellectuals Alliance.
Dec 1936 Veracruz/Mexico
Appointed Cultural Attaché to the Spanish Embassy in Paris by Luis Araquistain.
Jul 1937 Valencia
President of the Second International Wriiters Congress in Defence of Culture.
Jun 1938 USA
Trip to the USA to gain support for the Republic
Jan 1939 Mexico D. F,
Goes into exile.
Jan 1939 Veracruz/Mexico
Exile. In Paris he is appointed President of the Junta de Cultura Española.
1939 Mexico D. F.
Founds the publishing company Seneca
1939 Mexico D. F.
Founds the journal España Peregrina
May 1939 Mexico D. F.
Travels to Mexico by invitation of President Lázaro Cárdenas to prepare the arrival of Spanish intellectuals.
Feb 1943 Mexico D. F.
His wife Rosario dies.
Oct 1946 Caracas
Moves to Caracas, where he takes a teaching post at the Instituto Pedagógico.
Sep 1947 Montevideo
First trip to Uruguay, where he is invited to give a lecture by Eduardo Dieste
Apr 1948 Montevideo
Moves to Uruguay where he lectures at the University of Montevideo. He was invited by the Uruguayan writer and philosopher Carlos Vaz Ferreira.
Oct 1950 Warsaw
Attends the 2nd World Peace Congress with María Teresa León and Rafael Alberti. They travelled to Sheffield, but the Congress was banned there and relocated in Warsaw.
1954 Paris. Cite Universitaire
Leaves Montevideo for Paris.
Dec 1958 Madrid
Returns to Spain.
1963 Veracruz/Mexico
After signing an anti-Francoist document in support of the workers strike in Asturias, he is forced to obtain asylum in the Uruguayan embassy. On 1/12/1963 he arrives in Montevideo as an exile.
1970 Madrid
Definitive return to Spain
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